Abstract: Model-free policy learning has been shown to be capable of learning manipulation policies which can solve long-time horizon tasks using single-step manipulation primitives. However, training these policies is a time-consuming process requiring large amounts of data. We propose the Local Dynamics Model (LDM) which efficiently learns the state-transition function for these manipulation primitives. By combining the LDM with model-free policy learning, we can learn policies which can solve complex manipulation tasks using one-step lookahead planning. We show that the LDM is both more sample-efficient and outperforms other model architectures. When combined with planning, we can outperform other model-based and model-free policies on several challenging manipulation tasks in simulation.


Paper

Our work has been accepted to the 54th International Symposium on Robotics (ISRR 2022). Currently a preprint is avaliable on Arxiv.


Local Dynamics Model

We investigate the use of visual foresight in complex robotic manipulation tasks through the use of a Local Dynamics Model (LDM). The LDM learns the state-transition function for the pick and place primitves within the spatial action space. Unlike previous work which learns a dynamics model in latent space, LDM exploits the encoding of actions into image-space native to the spatial action space to instead learn an image-to-image transition function. Within this image space, we leverage both the localized effect of pick-and-place actions and the spatial equivariance property of top-down manipulation to dramatically improve the sample efficeny of the dynamics model. The figure below shows these two properties.

In order to predict the next scene image \(s'_{scene}\), we learn a model \(\bar{f}\) that predicts how the scene will change within \(B_a\), a neighborhood around the action \(a\). The output of the model is then inserted back into the original scene. The figure below details the UNet model architecture which we use for the LDM in our experiments, each blue box represents a 3x3 ResNet Block.

For additional details on Local Dyanmics Models see our paper.


Policy Learning

In this work we focus on robotic manipulation problems expressed as Markov decision processes in the spatial action space. In this MDP, the state is a top-down image of the workspace, \(s_{scene}\), paired with an image of the object currently held in the gripper, \(s_{hand}\) and the action is a subset of \(SE(2)\). In the figure below, the MDP state is illistrated. (a) The manipulation scene, (b) the top-down image of the workspace \(s_{scene}\), (c) the in-hand image, \(s_{hand}\).

While there are a variety of ways to improve policy learning using a dynamics model, in this work we take a relatively simple one-step lookahead approach. We learn the state value function \(V_{\psi}(s)\), and use it in combination with the dynamics model to estimate the \(Q\) function, \(\hat{Q}(s,a) = V_{\psi}(f(s,a))\)


Experiments

We performed a series of experiments to demonstrate the we can learn effective policies across a number of complex roboitic manipulation tasks. Specifically, we examine the four tasks detailed in the figure below: Block stacking, house building, bottle arrangement, and bin packing. The window in the top-left corner shows the goal state for each of the tasks.

For additional detalils and experiments please see our paper.


Video


Code

The code for the Local Dynamics Model detailed in this work can be found here.


Citation

@misc{https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv.2206.14802,
  doi = {10.48550/ARXIV.2206.14802},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2206.14802},
  author = {Kohler, Colin and Platt, Robert},
  title = {Visual Foresight With a Local Dynamics Model},
  publisher = {arXiv},
  year = {2022},
  copyright = {Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International}
}


Contact

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact Colin Kohler at kohler[dot]c[at]northeastern[dot]edu.